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Citation Guide (MLA 8th Edition): Books, eBooks & Pamphlets

Tips

Access Date

 Works from the web can typically be changed or removed at any time, so while it's optional, the date which you accessed material is often important.  This is especially true when there is no date specifying when an item was produced.This date will be added to the end of the entry. E.g. Accessed 23 July 2016.

Authors/Editors

An author can be a person but can also be an organization, or company. These are called group or corporate authors.

If you are citing a chapter from a book that has an editor, the author of the chapter is listed first, and is the name listed in the in-text citation.

Dates

The format of all dates is: Date Month (shortened) Year. E.g. 5 Sept. 2012.

Whether to give the year alone or include a month and day depends on your source: write the full date as you find it there.

If no date is listed, omit it unless you can find that information available in a reliable source. In that case the date is cited in square brackets. E.g. [2008]

Page Numbers

Page number on your Works Cited page (but not for in-text citations) are now proceeded by p. for a single page number and pp. for a range of page numbers. E.g. p. 156 or pp. 79-92.

Publishers

You have the option to use the shortened name of the publisher by using UP instead of University Press (e.g. Oxford UP, not Oxford University Press).

You also have the option to remove articles (A, An, The), business abbreviations (e.g. Co., Inc.) and descriptive words (e.g. Books, House, Press, Publishers).

Titles

Capitalize the first letter of every important word in the title. You do not need to capitalize words such as: in, of, or an.

If there is a colon (:) in the title, include what comes after the colon (also known as the subtitle).

Book in Print

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. 

For in-text citations, use (Last Name of Author)

Works Cited List Example  

Berlatsky, Noah. Wonder Woman: Bondage and Feminism in the Marston/Peter Comics, 1941-1948. Rutgers UP, 2017.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Berlatsky 70)

eBook From a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Name of Library Database, DOI or URL.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Bellantoni, Patti. If It's Purple, Someone's Gonna Die: The Power of Color in Visual Storytelling, Taylor and Francis, 2005. ProQuest Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/otis-ebooks/detail.action?docID=234952.

In-Text Citation Example

(Bellantoni 132)

eBook From a Website

Use for ebooks that are freely available on the Web.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Website Name, URL. Accessed Date.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Henty, George Alfred. The Cat of Bubastes: A Tale of Ancient Egypt. Blackie and Son, 1889. HathiTrust Digital Library, babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015073478847. Accessed 7 Nov. 2017.

In-Text Citation Example

(Henty 132)

eBook From an E-Reader (Downloaded Books)

Use for downloaded ebooks read on a tablet, e-reader, or app, such as Kindle. For the E-Book Edition, include the digital file type, such as EPUB, Kindle, or PDF. See also: Version

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. e-book of Specific Type of Edition (shortened), Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Treasure Island. Illustrated by Milo Winter, iBook ed., Children's Classics, 1986.

 Note: Add any additional contributors before the edition.

In-Text Citation Example

(Stevenson 240)

 Note: When available, use stable page, chapter, or section numbers. Do not use device-specific locations, e.g. "240 of 503" or "Loc. 1690 of 3014".

Anthology or Collection of Essays

Author's Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication.

 Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name)

Works Cited List Example  

Harrison, Charles, and Paul Wood, editors. Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. 2nd ed., Blackwell Publishing, 2014.

In-Text Citation Example  

(Harrison and Wood)

 Note: Since this book has two editors, refer to How to Cite a Book with Two Authors below.

Short Story, Essay, or Article From an Anthology or Collection of Essays

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Story, Essay, or Article." Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, edited by Editor's First Name and Last Name, Edition if given and is not first, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Page numbers of the essay, article, or short story.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example  

Mulvey, Laura. From "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, edited by Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, 2nd ed., Blackwell Publishing, 2014, pp. 982-989. 

  Note: The first author's name listed is the author of the chapter/essay/short story.

  Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

In-Text Citation Example  

(Mulvey 983)

Book With a Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of Publication.

 Note: When a work is published by an organization that is also its author, begin the entry with the title, skipping the author element, and list the organization only as publisher.

For in-text citations, use (Name of Corporate Author Page Number)

For in-text citations when the organization is the same as the publisher, use (Title Page Number)

Works Cited List Example  

Calgary Educational Partnership Foundation. Employability Skills: Creating My Future, Nelson, 1996.

In-Text Citation Example  

(Calgary Educational Partnership Foundation 14)

Pamphlet with a Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. Title of Pamphlet: Subtitle if Any. Publisher Name, Year of Publication. Pamphlet.

 Note: When a work is published by an organization that is also its author, begin the entry with the title, skipping the author element, and list the organization only as publisher.

For in-text citations, use (Name of Corporate Author)

For in-text citations when the organization is the same as the publisher, use (Title)

Works Cited List Example 

Bait and Switch Selling. Competition Bureau of Canada, 2014. Pamphlet.

In-Text Citation Example

(Bait and Switch Selling)

How to Cite When You Have Two Authors

If you have two authors cite,o nly the first author listed appears in "Last Name, First Name" format. Authors' names are separated by a comma and the word "and" before the second author's name.

Last Name, First Name Middle Name, and Second Author's First Name Last Name.

For in-text citations, use (First Author's Last Name and Second Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Wykes, Maggie, and Barrie Gunter. The Media and Body Image: If Looks Could Kill. Sage, 2005.

In-Text Citation Sample

(Wykes and Gunter 53)

How to Cite When You Have Three or More Authors

If you have three or more authors cite only the name of the first author listed followed by a comma and "et al."

First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al.

For in-text citations, use (First Author's Last Name et al. Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Vogt, W. Paul, et al. When to Use What Research Design, Guilford Publications, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/otis-ebooks/detail.action?docID=873354.

In-Text Citation Sample

(Vogt et al. 141)

Additional Contributors

Use for addtional important contributors, such as translators, editors, and illustrators.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Statement and Contributor's Name, Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Works Cited List Example

Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge. Translated by A. M. Sheridan Smith, 1st American ed., Pantheon Books, 1972.

In-Text Citation Sample

(Foucault 36)

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