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Citation Guide (MLA 8th Edition): Websites

Accessed Date

 Note: Online works can be changed or removed at any time, so the date you accessed the source is an indicator of the version you consulted. The date of access is especially crucial if the source has no date specifying when it was produced or published. Use the shortened name of the month; see list under Publication Date.

Use this format for all dates: Day Month Year

31 Oct. 2017

5 June 2016

Tips

URL

Because web addresses change often, use the stable version of the URL. It is usually identified as Permalink, DOI, or Share This. For many databases, the URL in the browser bar may contain login and session data and will stop working.

Author

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.

If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead.

Date

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.

If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.

Page on a Website Created by a Corporation, Institution, or Group

Name of Corporation/Group/Organization. "Title of Section." Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of publication or last modified date, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use ("Title of Section")

 Note: The publisher or sponsoring organization can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the home page or on a page that gives information about the site. When the page is authored and published by the same corporation/group/organization, begin your citation with the section title.

 Note: The publisher may be omitted from the citation if the website title is essentially the same as the publisher name

Works Cited List Example

"Spotlight on SIGGRAPH: S3 Provides the Tools for Success." ACM SIGGRAPH, 15 Dec. 2014, www.siggraph.org/discover/news/spotlight-siggraph-s3-provides-tools-success. Accessed 31 Oct. 2017.

In-Text Citation Example

("Spotlight on SIGGRAPH")

Website with a Known Author

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name)

Works Cited List Example

Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeare Online, 29 Dec. 2011, www.shakespeare-online.com. Accessed 6 July 2016.

In-Text Citation Example (Mabillard)

Page or Document on a Website with a Known Author

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name)

Works Cited List Example

Werlin, Katy. "Mythbusters: Fashion History Edition." The Fashion Historian, Mar. 2015, www.thefashionhistorian.com/2015/03/mythbusters-fashion-history-edition.html. Accessed 31 Oct. 2017.

In-Text Citation Example (Werlin)

Page or Document on a Website with an Unknown Author

"Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use ("Title of Page or Document")

Works Cited List Example

"How to Teach Yourself Guitar." eHow, Demand Media, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html. Accessed 24 June 2016.

Note: The date of access is especially crucial if the source has no date specifying when it was produced or published.

In-Text Citation Example

("How to Teach Yourself Guitar")

Note: There is no author, so the title (or an abbreviated version of the title) is used in the in-text citation, in quotation marks, as it appears in the Works Cited List Example above.

Government Document From a Website

Department, Agency or Committee. Title of Document: Subtitle if Given. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher, Publication Date, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use (Abbreviated Name of Departmner, Agency or Committee)

Works Cited List Example

Competition Bureau of Canada. Highlights from the Competition Bureau’s Workshop on Emerging Competition Issues. Competition Bureau of Canada, 4 Mar. 2016, www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/vwapj/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf/$FILE/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2016.

In-Text Citation Example

(Competition Bur. of Can.)

 Note: You can use a shortened form of the title by listing the first word or words of the full title.

Wikipedia

 Note: Wikipedia is not considered to be an acceptable source for your assignments and will not count towards the required minimum number of sources. It is a good place to start your research.

"Title of Entry." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Day Month Year entry was last modified, Time entry was last modified, URL of entry. Accessed Date.

For in-text citations, use ("Title of Entry")

Works Cited List Example

"Body Image." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Nov. 2017, 7:49 am, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image. Accessed 9 Nov. 2017.

 Note: The date and time the article was last modified appears at the bottom of each Wikipedia article.

In-Text Citation Example

("Body Image")

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name)

Works Cited List Example

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology, Scientific American Blogs, 27 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/. Accessed 28 June 2016.

In-Text Citation Example (Naish)

 Note: Blog posts have no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Facebook

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL. Accessed date.

For in-text citations, use (Author's Last Name or Account Name)

Works Cited List Example

Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., www.facebook.com/rickmercerreport. Accessed 26 June 2016. 

 Note: As Facebook posts can be lengthy, describe the post instead of reposting its content. To find the time of a Facebook post, hover your mouse next to the date of the post over the clock icon. It may not be possible to link directly to the specific post itself.

In-Text Citation Example (Rick Mercer Report)

Image from Website or Blog

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Website, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher/Platform, Date of Publication, URL. Accessed date.

For captions, use: Fig. #. Description from: Citation.

For in-text citations, use (Fig. #) or (Author's Last Name) or  ("Words from Title or Article").

Works Cited Example

 "It All Started with a Fruit." Rob Janoff, contributions by www.fansofapple.com, robjanoff.com/applelogo/. Accessed 16 Nov. 2017.

Caption Example

6 Apple Logos from 1976 to today

Fig. 5. Six Apple logos from 1976 to now from: "It All Started with a Fruit." Rob Janoff, contributions by www.fansofapple.com, robjanoff.com/applelogo/. Accessed 16 Nov. 2017.

 Note: If the citation is included in the caption, you do not need to add it to the Works Cited list.

In-Text Citation Example

(Fig. 5) or ("It All Started With a Fruit")

Comment on a Website or Article

Commenter's Username. Comment on "Title." Publisher, date, time, URL. Accessed date.

 Note: List the username as the author. Add the phrase "Comment on" before the title of the article, video, etc. Use the time listed on or near the comment.

For in-text citations, use (Username)

Works Cited List Example

Not Omniscent Enough. Comment on "Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument After Pasta." ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.

In-Text Citation Example

(Not Omniscient Enough)

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