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Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition) UNDER CONSTRUCTION

How to cite sources according to MLA


Dissertations and theses

Dissertations and theses are written to fulfil an academic degree requirement, usually at the Masters or PhD level. They usually have only 1 author.

For the most part, treat them like books with supplemenal elements.

  • Since dissertations and theses are often re-worked into articles and books, it is important to note when your source was written to fulfill an academic degree requirement
  • The publisher is the degree-granting instution
  • Include the type of degree conferred and either thesis or dissertation
    • Do not include the program, department, school, division, or similar information
    • Usually placed before the container of the online repository which houses the publication
  • Automatic citation generators often treat online theses and dissertations as websites or journal articles, so will be missing the key information

Citation Templates

Print copy

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle. Publication Date. University name, Degree conferred.


Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle. Publication Date. University name, Degree conferred. Online Repository, URL.

In-Text Citation

(Author's Last Name ##)

Replace ## with page number(s) for quotes or where the idea is discussed.

Print versions

Smith, Kate Elizabeth. The Influence of Audrey Hepburn and Hubert de Givenchy on American Fashion, 1952-1965. 2001. Michigan State University, MA Thesis.

Electronic Versions

Austin, Katherine. Rasquache Baroque in the Chicana/o Borderlands. 2012. McGill U, PhD thesis. eScholarship, Accessed 6 Jan. 2023.

  • eScholarship is McGill University's online repository of dissertations and theses
  • Followed McGill's lead and used "thesis" instead of "dissertation"

Grullon, Jaymi Leah. Campy Musical Black Queer Forms: Finding Utopia in Lil Nas X's World of "Montero". St. John's University, MA Thesis. St. John's Scholar,

  • St. John's Scholar is the university's online repository of dissertations and theses

Hutchinson, Jennifer. Emotional Response to Climate Change Learning: An Existential Inquiry. 2021. Antioch University, Antioch University, Doctoral dissertation. EBSCOhost,,sso&db=ddu&AN=29DBEAFBF585BC45&site=eds-live&scope=site.

  • Found record in OwlCat, so used EBSCOhost as the repository
  • Could be more specific and replace the EBSCOhost info with:
    OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center,

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