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Citation Guide (MLA 8th Edition): When Information Is Missing

No Author

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead.

 Note: an author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada or a username on a site such a YouTube.

Anonymous

If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name.

Alphabetical Order in References List

When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title The Best of Canada would be alphabetized as if it started with the word Best instead of the word The.

If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title 5 Ways to Succeed in Business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five.

No Date

If no date is provided, skip that information.

It's recommended that you add the date you accessed the work at the end of the citation. Access date is given by putting the word "Accessed" followed by the Day Month (Shortened) Year the work was accessed/viewed. For example, Accessed 20 Aug 2016.

No Page Numbers

If no page number is provided, skip that information.

Page numbers may not be provided for some items, such as online materials. If this is the case leave the page numbers out of the citation.

For ebooks, use stable identifiers such as page number, chapter or section. Do not use location-specific identifiers.

No Database Name

If you cannot determine the name of the Databse, use the Database Provider.

When searching multiple databases at one time, make sure to click through to read the full article. Once you are looking at the full article it usually says the database name at the top of the screen.

If it is ambiguous or says something like "searching 3 databases" and you can't tell which one database it is from, enter the name of the database provider (e.g. Proquest, EBSCO, etc.) as the database.

 Note: Most research databases provide citations. Use the "Cite" or "Citation" link.

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