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Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition) UNDER CONSTRUCTION

How to cite sources according to MLA
This page has been updated to MLA 9

Publisher (Works Cited)

Publisher is the seventh core element.

The company or organization primarily responsible for producing the source or making it available is the publisher.

For books, the publisher is listed on the title page.

  • This element begins with a capital letter because it will almost always be a proper noun.
  • Use shortened forms of publisher names.
    • For example, "University Press" is shortened to "UP".
    • Omit all business words like "Company", "Corporation", "Incorporated", and "Limited".
  • If more than one party appears to be equally responsible for the source, document both separated by a forward slash "/".
  • Use the publisher(s) of the version you have accessed, even if it is different from the original publisher(s).
  • Some sources will not have a publisher. Common examples include:
    • Articles from periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers)
    • Self-published works
    • Web sites with no publisher listed
    • Web sites functioning as a container instead of a publisher like YouTube,, JSTOR, etc.
  • This element ends with a comma.


For ease of identification, publishers are in bold and red text below.


Brinkley, Alan, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. 7th ed, McGraw Hill, 2014.


Couceiro, Sofia and Jason Hanna. "Kate's Sister, Pippa Middleton, Announces Engagement." CNN, 19 July 2016,

Blog network:

DiFrancesco, Tim. "The 4-Week Fitness Plan to Increase Strength: Day 9." Hello Healthy, My Fitness Pal, 2 June 2016,

Films or television series:

The Big Lebowski. Directed by Joel Coen, performances by Jeff Bridges and Julianne Moore, Polygram Filmed Entertainment, 1998.

"Something Nice Back Home." Lost, directed by Stephen Williams, performance by Matthew Fox, season 4, episode 10, Bad Robot, 2008.

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy / WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

"Hush." 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, episode 10, Mutant Enemy / Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3. DVD.

Comic book issue:

Byrne, John and Jim Lee. "The Resurrection and the Flesh." X-Men, vol. 2, no. 4, Marvel Comics, Jan. 1992.

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